Mexico and Canada have been waging a silent battle for market share in the U.S. crude oil refining market. Since 2006, crude oil exports from Canada and Mexico to the U.S.’ largest refining complex in the U.S. Gulf Coast (Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts 3 or “PADD 3” or “Gulf Coast”) has changed dramatically.
A Crude History: Canada vs. Mexico
Historically, Canada and Mexico have both brought significant oil supplies to refiners in the U.S. In 2006, Mexico and Canada were both exporting 1.7 million barrels per day of oil to the U.S.; however, Mexican and Canadian crude oil market share was fairly segregated – Mexico dominated the Gulf Coast and Canada dominated the U.S. Midwest (“PADD 2”).
The 2008 financial crisis led to a major shift in Mexican and Canadian oil exports to the U.S., with Canadian oil at a distinct advantage. Mexico was already facing a decline in oil production from 2006 and the country would see oil production fall by 19 percent into 2009; meanwhile, Canadian crude remained unchanged.
Into 2015 Canadian oil production increased by 37 percent and its oil exports to the U.S. increased by 77 percent, leading to a need for Canadian oil exports to find larger markets for its highly viscous (“heavy”) crude.
Canada’s flood of heavy oil exports into the U.S. was met with climbing oil production for the U.S. shale revolution. The flood of both light U.S. shale oil and heavy Canadian crude oil in the U.S. restricted transportation of Canadian crude to U.S. refining markets. Canada needed to find alternative methods from traditional pipeline transportation of oil to the U.S. and, thus, started exporting oil by rail.
Canada was exporting so much crude to the U.S. that transportation infrastructure simply could not handle the flood of oil. Subsequently, in order for Canada to push more oil into U.S. markets ahead of U.S. domestically produced oil, Canadian oil was priced at an increasing discount to U.S. oil prices. This discount made Canadian oil more attractive for refiners to import into the U.S. using relatively expensive transportation methods like truck, rail, and barge, and caused Canadian crude to replace other imported crudes in the U.S.
The US Gulf (Coast) War
Discounted Canadian oil kept flooding into the U.S. market and had to find new heavy oil refining customers above and beyond the U.S. Midwest. Canada increased its oil exports to the U.S. West Coast (“PADD 5” or “West Coast”) by 114 percent from 2006 to 2016 and doubled its market share in PADD 5 from 9 percent to 18 percent. However, the largest change in market share came from Canada’s increased presence in the U.S. Gulf Coast.
In 2006 Mexico was the Gulf Coast’s largest crude supplier – supplying 1.6 million barrels per day of crude oil or 30 percent of all Gulf Coast crude oil imports. In 2006 Canada was not even a forethought for Gulf Coast refiners, but as Canadian crude became cheaper and more means of transportation were used to carry Canadian oil, the glut of Canadian crude flooding the U.S. made its way down to the U.S. Gulf Coast. As of 2016, Canadian crude makes up 10 percent of all imports into the U.S. Gulf Coast and has cut into market share from Mexico.
Mexico’s Gulf Coast crude oil market share has been halved since 2006 resulting in a 1 million barrel per day drop in oil exports to the U.S. Gulf Coast. Mexico attempted to make up the loss in market share in the U.S. by exporting more oil to Spain and India, but that increase made up less than 10 percent of the exports lost to competition in the U.S. Gulf Coast.
Mexico’s Cross Roads
Mexico is now taking pro-active efforts to stem the natural decline from large offshore fields that resulted in reduced Mexican oil production and lost market share in the U.S. The Mexican government enacted constitutional reforms, ending the 75-year monopoly Mexico’s state run oil company, Petroleós Mexicanos (PEMEX), has had over Mexico’s oil & gas sector.
The government has opened its oil & gas blocks to private investment and have already conducted separate auctions for shallow offshore and onshore blocks. The next phase of auction blocks in Mexico will take place in December 2016 and will include deep water blocks in the Gulf of Mexico that Exxon (XOM), Chevron (CVX), Royal Dutch Shell (RDS.A), BP Plc (BP), Statoil (STO), and Total (TOT) are said to have registered for bidding.
Additionally, Mexico is said to be planning to export some of its crude to the West Coast in order to carve out a portion of market share in PADD 5. Saudi Arabia and Canada dominate exports to the West Coast with a cumulative market share of 46 percent as of 2016. Mexico has not consistently shipped crude to the West Coast since 2008 and it will likely be difficult for Mexican crude to compete with Canadian crude exports. The sustained deep discount of Canadian crude oil continues to help Canadian oil outcompete crudes with high viscosity and sulfur content identical to Mexico’s flagship Mayan crude and similar to Saudi Heavy crude.
Although expensive relative to Canadian crude, Mexican Maya shipments could compete with Saudi crude shipments to the West Coast because of Mexico’s proximity to the U.S. West Coast.
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